Whats A Master Degree

Whats A Master Degree – (from the Latin word magister) is a postgraduate degree awarded by a university or college after the completion of the study program and which shows a high level of mastery or an overview of a specific field of study or area of ​​professional practice.

A master’s degree usually requires previous studies at undergraduate level, either as a separate degree or as part of an integrated course. Master’s graduates in the researched field are required to have in-depth special knowledge of theoretical and applied topics; high-level skills in analysis, critical evaluation or professional application; and the ability to solve complex problems and think carefully and deeply.

Whats A Master Degree

Whats A Master Degree

The master’s degree dates back to the origins of European universities, and a papal bull of 1233 decreed that those with a master’s degree at the University of Toulouse should be free to teach at any other university. The original purpose of the master’s degree was that a person who was accepted at one university for the rank (title) of master (i.e. teacher) would be accepted for the same rank at another university. This was gradually formulated as lictia docdī (permission to teach). At first masters and doctors were not distinguished from each other, but by the 15th century it had become customary in rural universities to call teachers of lower faculties (arts and grammar) masters and teachers of higher faculties doctors.

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Originally, a bachelor’s degree (BA) was awarded for trivium studies and a master’s degree (MA) for quadrivium studies.

Thus, from the Middle Ages until the 19th century, the title pattern was to have Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees in the lower faculties and Bachelor’s and Doctorate degrees in the upper faculties. In the United States, the first master’s degree (Magister Artium or Master of Arts) was awarded at Harvard University shortly after its founding.

In Scotland the pre-Reformation universities (St Andrews, Glasgow and Aberde) expanded so that the Scottish MA became their first degree, while in Oxford, Cambridge and Trinity College Dublin the MA was awarded to BA graduates without further action. A study of the late 17th century, its main goal was to gain full university membership.

At Harvard, the regulations of 1700 required undergraduate applicants to pass a general examination,

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In the 19th century, the range of master’s degrees expanded considerably. At the beginning of the course, the only master’s degree is the MA, and it is usually awarded without further studies or degrees. The University of Glasgow introduced the degree of Master of Surgery in 1815.

By 1861 it had been adopted throughout Scotland, and at Cambridge and Durham, Gland, and the University of Dublin, Ireland.

When the Philadelphia College of Surgeons was founded in 1870, it also awarded a master’s degree in surgery, “the same as in Europe.”

Whats A Master Degree

Although there are major doubts about the quality of the Scottish Championship this season. In 1832, Lord Brougham, Lord Chancellor and alumnus of the University of Edinburgh, told the House of Lords that “In other countries, universities confer degrees after a considerable length of residence, after much work has been done, and otherwise in every way so rigorously. However, by law universities cannot to say that the Master of Arts would have been created in Oxford and Cambridge as in Scotland without residency or degree. Universities which impose requirements for the award of degrees are a dead letter.”

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It was not until 1837 that a separate examination was re-admitted for the M.A. in colic at the newly founded Durham College (although, as in the ancient universities, this was intended to offer full membership), followed in 1840 by another similar examination. . The University of London, authorized only by its charter to grant degrees by examination.

However, by mid-century the MA studied second degree was again under threat when Durham moved to award it automatically to those who obtained honors in the BA in 1857, as did the Oxbridge MA and Edinburgh later. Other Scottish universities awarded the MA as the first degree, rather than the BA, from 1858.

At the same time, new universities were established around the British Empire, such as London, including MA degrees: the University of Sydney in Australia and Queen’s University in Ireland in 1850, and the University of Bombay (now the University of Bombay). ). University of Mumbai), Madras and Calcutta in India in 1857.

In the United States, the rise of a master’s degree to a diploma began in 1856 at the University of North Carolina, followed by the University of Michigan in 1859,

Master Of Arts

Although the idea of ​​a master’s degree as a second degree to be earned did not become established until the 1870s, together with a doctorate as a final degree.

Sometimes it is possible to complete a master’s degree either by exam or based on seniority at the same institution; for example, in Michigan, the MA “in course” was introduced in 1848 and was last awarded in 1882, while the MA “in degree” was introduced in 1859.

Perhaps the most important master’s degree introduced in the 19th century was the Master of Science (MS in the US, MSc in the UK). At the University of Michigan it was introduced in two forms in 1858: “in-course”, first given in 1859, and “in-test”, first given in 1862. The last “in-course” MS was given in 1876.

Whats A Master Degree

But in the UK it takes longer to get the title. When London introduced the Faculty of Science in 1858, the university was granted a new charter authorizing it “to devise the several degrees of Bachelor, Master, and Doctor of Arts, Law, Science, Medicine, and Music.”

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The same two degrees, excluding the MA, are awarded in Edinburgh, although the MA is the standard Bachelor of Arts degree in Scotland.

In 1862, a royal commission recommended that Durham award Masters of Theology and Natural Sciences (with the proposed abbreviations MT and MS, as opposed to the British practice of using MTh or MTheol and MSc for these degrees).

But the recommendations were not followed. In 1877, Oxford introduced the Master of Science degree and the Bachelor of Science degree, alongside the MA and BA degrees, awarded to students completing degrees in the Honors Schools of Science.

But in 1880 the proposal to add the Master’s degree was rejected, as was the proposal to grant the Master of Arts to the Masters of Science, in order to make them full members of the University.

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The program appears to be quietly winding down, with Oxford awarding BA and MA degrees in natural sciences.

At Victoria University, the MA and MSc follow in the footsteps of the Durham MA in requiring additional examinations for those with ordinary undergraduate degrees, but not for those with honours.

At the beginning of the 20th century, there were four different master’s degrees in England: the Scottish MA, which was awarded as the first degree; Master of Arts (Oxbridge and Dublin), awarded to all BA graduates within a specified period of taking the first degree without further study; a master’s degree, which could be obtained by postgraduate study or honors (which at the time in England included further studies beyond the standard degree, as is still done in Scotland and some Commonwealth countries); and Master’s degrees that can only be obtained through postgraduate study (including all Master’s degrees in London). In 1903, the London Daily News criticized the practices of Oxford and Cambridge, calling their M.A.’s “the stupidest academic fraud” and “false degrees”.

Whats A Master Degree

Correspondence of the Courts suggests that “a Scottish M.A. is at most only a Glish B.A.” and insisted on a common standard of degrees, while the defenders of the ancient universities said that “A.A. The Cambridge Psalter does not pretend to be a prize for learning” and that “it is quite absurd to describe one of their degrees as a sham, because that of another modern university, which gives the same title for different reasons .”

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In 1900, Dartmouth College introduced the Master of Commercial Science (MCS), first awarded in 1902. It was the first Master of Commerce degree, a precursor to the modern MBA.

The idea quickly crossed the Atlantic when Manchester founded the Faculty of Economics, which awarded bachelor’s and master’s degrees in economics in 1903.

In the first half of the century, the automatic master’s degree for honors graduates disappeared when honors degrees became the standard undergraduate degree in Great Britain. In the 1960s, the new universities in Scotland (except Dundee, which inherited the MA from St Andrews) reintroduced the BA as undergraduate arts degrees and reinstated the MA as a postgraduate degree. Oxford and Cambridge kept their MAs, but many lost their postgraduates

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