Master’s Degree Year – (from the Latin magister) is a professional master’s degree awarded by a university or college upon completion of a course of study that demonstrates mastery or an advanced overview of a specific field of study or area of professional practice.
A master’s degree usually requires prior study at undergraduate level, either as a stand-alone degree or as part of an integrated course. Graduates of the master’s degree are expected to have a comprehensive knowledge of a set of specific theoretical and applied topics in the field of study; advanced skills in analysis, critical appraisal or professional application; and the ability to solve complex problems and think critically and continuously.
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The master’s degree dates back to the origins of European universities, with the papal bull of 1233 stating that anyone admitted to a master’s degree at the University of Toulouse should be allowed to teach freely at any other university. The original meaning of the master’s degree was that a person accepted in the master’s degree (ie a lecturer) in one university must be accepted for the same degree in other universities. Gradually it was formalized as lictia docdī (license to teach). Originally, masters and doctors were not distinguished, but by the 15th century it was common in Glacian universities to refer to teachers in lower colleges (arts and grammar) as masters and teachers in higher colleges as doctors.
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Previously, the Bachelor of Arts (BA) degree was awarded for minor studies and the Master of Arts (MA) degree for quadrivium studies.
Therefore, from the late Middle Ages until the 19th century, the degree model was that the lower faculties offered bachelor’s and master’s degrees, while the higher faculties offered bachelor’s and doctoral degrees. In the United States, the first master’s degrees (Magister Artium or Master of Arts) were awarded at Harvard University immediately after its founding.
In Scotland, the pre-Reformation universities (St Andrews, Glasgow and Aberdeen) developed so that the Scottish MA became their first degree, while at Oxford, Cambridge and Trinity College Dublin the MA was awarded a first degree of some status without further examination from . at the end of the 17th century, its main purpose is to provide full membership in the university.
At Harvard, 1700 regulations required candidates for a master’s degree to pass a public examination,
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In the 19th century, the range of master’s degrees awarded expanded greatly. At the beginning of the course, the only graduate degree was the MA, and this was usually awarded without further study or examinations. The Master of Surgery degree was established by the University of Glasgow in 1815.
By 1861 it was adopted throughout Scotland, as well as at Cambridge and Durham Colleges and Dublin University in Ireland.
The College of Surgeons of Philadelphia was founded in 1870 and also granted a master’s degree in surgery “equal to that in Europe.”
Although there was considerable doubt about the quality of the Scottish degrees of this period. In 1832, Lord Brougham, Chancellor and alumnus of the University of Edinburgh, told the House of Lords that “in the gland the universities conferred degrees after a long period of residence, after much work, and if not in every way as strict as the law.” of the universities required, but it could not be said that masters of arts were instituted at Oxford and Cambridge, as they were in Scotland, without residence or examinations of any kind. The granting of degrees was a dead letter.”
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It was not until 1837 that the newly founded University of Durham re-introduced separate examinations for the M.A. of Gland (although, as in the ancient Glishian universities, it required full membership), followed in 1840 by new similar examinations. The University of London, which alone was authorized by its constitution to grant degrees by examination.
However, by mid-course the MA as a second degree was under threat again, and Durham moved to award it directly to those who obtained the BA in 1857, similar to the Oxbridge MA, and Edinburgh followed other Scottish universities in awarding the MA as. his first degree instead of BA from 1858.
Meanwhile, new universities were established around the British Empire, such as London, as well as the University of Sydney in Australia and the University of Que’s Ireland in 1850, and the Universities of Bombay (now the University of Mumbai), Madras and Calcutta there. India in 1857.
The restoration of the US master’s degree as an accredited qualification began in 1856 at the University of North Carolina, followed by the University of Michigan in 1859.
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Although the idea of a master’s degree as a second degree was not well established along with a doctorate as a final degree until the 1870s.
Sometimes it was possible to obtain the MA degree by examination or by majoring in the same institution; for example, in Michigan, the MA was established in 1848 and was last awarded in 1882, while the MA was established in 1859.
Perhaps the most important graduate degree established in the 19th century was the Master of Science (MSc in the US, MSc in the UK). It was introduced at the University of Michigan in two forms in 1858: “course,” first issued in 1859, and “examination,” first issued in 1862. ‘Course’ MS last issued in 1876.
However, it took time to get a degree in England. When London established its Faculty of Science in 1858, the university was granted a new charter empowering it to “grant the several degrees of Bachelor, Master, and Doctor of Arts in Arts, Law, Science, Medicine, Music.”
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Those two degrees, again leaving out the MA, were awarded in Edinburgh, despite being the standard Bachelor of Arts in Scotland.
In 1862, a royal commission recommended that Durham be awarded Masters of Theology and Science (with the proposed abbreviations MT and MS, against the later British practice of using MTh or MTheol and MSc for these degrees).
But his recommendations were not followed. In 1877, Oxford introduced the Master of Science, along with the Bachelor of Science, to accompany the Master’s and Bachelor’s degrees and to be awarded to students who obtained degrees from the School of Science.
But in 1880 the proposal to obtain the degree of Master of Science was rejected, together with the proposal to give the degree of Master of Arts to Masters of Science to become full members of the University.
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The program appears to have been quietly scrapped and Oxford will continue to award bachelor’s and master’s degrees in science.
At Victoria University, M.A. and M.A. they followed the Durham M.A., which required an additional examination for those with an ordinary bachelor’s degree, but not for those with an honors degree.
At the beginning of the 20th century, there were four different types of master’s degree in England: the Scottish MA, which was awarded as a first degree; Master of Arts (Oxbridge and Dublin) awarded to all BA graduates for a specified period after the first degree without further study; master’s degrees, which could be obtained by continuing studies or an honors degree (which at that time in England involved studies beyond the ordinary degree, as it still does in Scotland and some Commonwealth countries); and Master’s degrees that could only be obtained by further study (including all London Master’s degrees). In 1903, London’s Daily News criticized the behavior of Oxford and Cambridge, calling the MA “the most stupid academic fraud” and “false degrees”.
The indictment stated that “the Scotch M.A. is only equivalent to the glish B.A.” and demanded uniform standards of degrees, while the representatives of the ancient universities said that “the Cambridge M.A. claims no reward for learning” and that “it is utter nonsense to describe one of their degrees as false, like other modern degrees. The universities give equal degree to the difference in reason.
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In 1900, Dartmouth College established the Master of Commerce (MCS), first awarded in 1902. This was the first master’s degree in business, the forerunner of today’s MBA.
The idea quickly crossed the Atlantic Ocean, and the Faculty of Business was established in Manchester in 1903, offering bachelor’s and master’s degrees.
In the first half of the year, automatic master’s degrees for top graduates disappeared while honors degrees became common undergraduate qualifications in the UK. In the 1960s, the new Scottish universities (except Dundee, which received the BA from St Andrews) re-introduced the BA, reintroducing the MA as a qualification. Oxford and Cambridge held MAs, but many went on to postgraduate studies
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