Master’s Degree With Apostrophe – (from Latin magister) is a master’s degree awarded by universities or colleges upon completion of a course of study that demonstrates mastery or excellence in a particular field of study or area of professional practice.
A master’s degree usually requires prior study at the graduate level, either as a separate degree or as part of a combined course. Within the field of study, Master’s students are expected to have advanced knowledge of a specific set of theoretical and applied topics; High analytical skills, critical analysis, or professional application; and the ability to solve complex problems and think critically and critically.
Master’s Degree With Apostrophe
The master’s degree originated in European universities, with a papal decree of 1233 allowing anyone admitted to the University of Toulouse in standing of excellence to teach freely at another university. A master’s degree originally meant that a person enrolled in a master’s degree at one university (ie a teacher) must be enrolled in the same degree at other universities. This was later formalized as lilictia docdī (licce to teach). Initially, scholars and doctors were not distinguished, but by the 15th century it became common in elite universities to refer to teachers in the lower departments (arts and grammar) as scholars and those in the higher ranks as doctors.
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Originally, the Bachelor of Arts (BA) was awarded for the trivium course and the Master of Arts (MA) for the quadrivium course.
From the late Middle Ages to the 19th century, the degree system was bachelor’s and master’s degrees in lower fields and bachelor’s and doctorates in higher fields. In the United States, the first master’s degree (magister artium, or master of arts) was awarded at Harvard University shortly after its founding.
In Scotland, pre-Reformation universities (St Andrews, Glasgow, and Aberdeen) developed so that the Scottish School MA became their first degree, while Oxford, Cambridge, and Trinity College Dublin, MA, awarded BA graduates in no particular capacity. therefore. Further analysis from the end of the 17th year, its main objective is to provide full members of the university.
At Harvard, 1700 candidates are required to pass a public examination for a master’s degree.
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The 19th century saw a significant increase in the variety of master’s degrees offered. At the beginning of the course, the master’s degree was simply an MA, and it was usually awarded without further study or examination. The Master in Surgery degree was introduced in 1815 by the University of Glasgow.
By 1861 it was adopted throughout Scotland as well as at the universities of Cambridge and Durham in England and Dublin in Ireland.
When the Philadelphia College of Surgeons was founded in 1870, it also offered a master of surgery “as in Europe”.
However there was considerable doubt as to the value of Scottish degrees of this period. In 1832, Lord Brougham, Lord Chancellor and alumnus of the University of Edinburgh, told the House of Lords that “Universities, after long residence, confer degrees after hard work, even if they are not in all respects as strong as laws. Universities need, yet masters at Oxford and Cambridge of Arts cannot be said to have been established in Scotland, without residence or some examination. It was the obituary of the universities which imposed the conditions for conferring degrees.”
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It was not until 1837 that the newly founded University of Durham reinstated separate examinations for the M.A. in Faculty (although, as in the older universities, it was to grant full membership), which would be followed by similar new ones in the 1840s. . The University of London, which was only authorized by its charter to confer degrees by examination.
However, in the midst of education, the MA as a second examined degree came under threat again, and Durham began to award it automatically to those who had obtained honors at the BA in 1857, as well as the Oxbridge MA, and Edinburgh followed other Scottish universities. From 1858 awarding the MA as the first degree instead of the BA.
At the same time, new universities were being established around the British Empire near London, including MA examinations: the University of Sydney in Australia and the University of Quays in Ireland in the 1850s, and the Universities of Bombay (now the University of Mumbai), Madras and Calcutta in India in 1857.
In the United States, the restoration of the master’s degree as an audited degree began in 1856 at the University of North Carolina, followed by the University of Michigan in 1859.
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However, the master’s degree was not well established as a second degree until the 1870s, alongside the PhD as the terminal degree.
At one time it was possible to obtain an MA by examination or seniority at a single institution; For example, the Michigan “in course” MA was introduced in 1848 and finally awarded in 1882, while the “examination” MA was introduced in 1859.
Perhaps the most important master’s degree introduced in the 19th century was the Master of Science (MS in the US, MSc in the UK). At the University of Michigan it was introduced in 1858 in two forms: “on the course”, first awarded in 1859, and “on examination”, first awarded in 1862. “Essentially” the MS was finally issued in 1876.
However, in Britain, the solution took some time to arrive. When London introduced the Faculty of Science in 1858, the university was granted a new charter empowering it to “conquer the several degrees of Bachelor, Master, and Doctor” in “Arts, Laws, Sciences, Medicine, Music”.
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Those two degrees, and we have left out the Masters, were awarded in Edinburgh, despite the fact that the MA in Art Education was the standard degree for art in Scotland.
In 1862, a royal commission proposed that Durham award Masters of Theology and Science (abbreviated MT and MS, in contrast to later British practice of using MTh or MTheol and MSc for these degrees),
But his advice was not implemented. In 1877, Oxford introduced the Master of Natural Sciences to stand alongside the MA and BA awards of the Bachelor of Natural Sciences and to be awarded to students graduating from the Honors School of Natural Sciences.
But in 1880 a proposal to raise the degree of Master of Science to the degree of Master of Arts to make the Master of Natural Sciences a full member of the University was rejected.
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While Oxford continued to offer BA and MA degrees in science, the scheme appears to have been quietly withdrawn.
At the University of Victoria, the MA and MSc followed the lead of Durham’s MA in requiring no further examinations for ordinary undergraduate degree holders but not for honors holders.
At the beginning of the 20th century, there were four different types of master’s degrees in the UK: the Scottish MA, awarded as a first degree; Master of Arts (Oxbridge and Dublin), awarded to all BA graduates without further study after their first degree; Master’s degrees which can be obtained either by further study or by obtaining an honors degree (which at the time involved study beyond the standard degree in the UK, this is still the case in Scotland and other Commonwealth countries); and postgraduate degrees which can only be obtained through further study (including all London postgraduate degrees). In 1903, the London Daily News criticized the approach of Oxford and Cambridge, calling their MAs “the most fraudulent of academic frauds” and “false degrees”.
The incriminating letter pointed out that “a Scotch M.A. is, in fact, only equivalent to a brilliant B.A.” and called for a common standard for the degrees, while opponents of the older universities said that “the Cambridge M.A. does not pretend to be an award of education” and “it is absurd to define one of their degrees because some modern universities. award the same degree for various reasons.”
In 1900, Dartmouth College introduced the Master of Commercial Science (MCS), which was first awarded in 1902. It was the first business master’s degree, a precursor to today’s MBA.
The idea quickly crossed the Atlantic, and Manchester established a Department of Commerce in 1903, offering Bachelor and Master of Commerce degrees.
Automatic honors master’s degrees disappeared in the first half of the academic year as honors degrees became the standard undergraduate qualification in the UK. In the 1960s, the new Scottish universities (except Dundee, which had inherited the undergraduate MA from St Andrews) reinstated the BA as their first arts degree, returning the MA to its original status as a recent undergraduate. Oxford and Cambridge have kept their MAs, but they have inspired many of the latter
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