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Master’s Degree In Higher Education
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Master of Arts (Latin: Magister Artium or Artium Magister; abbreviated as MA, M.A., AM, or A.M.) is a university master’s degree in many countries. The degree is usually compared to a Master of Scice. Degree holders usually study subjects within the scope of the humanities and social sciences, such as history, literature, language, linguistics, public administration, political science, communication science, law or diplomacy; However, different universities have different beliefs and may offer degrees in areas normally considered natural sciences and mathematics. Degrees may be awarded by completion and examination, research, or a combination of the two.
The Master of Arts degree traces its origins to the teaching license or Lictia docdi of the University of Paris, which was designed to produce “masters” who became postgraduate teachers in the subject.
Like all EU member states, the Czech Republic and Slovakia follow the Bologna Process. The Czech Republic and Slovakia both offer two types of master’s degrees; both were given the title of Mgr. or Ing. must be used before a noun.
Before the reform to comply with the Bologna process, a master’s degree could only be obtained after five years of uninterrupted study. In the new system, it only takes two years but requires a three-year bachelor’s program to be completed (Bc. title). Writing a thesis (in master’s and bachelor’s programs) and passing the final exam are required to obtain a degree. Especially if the final exam covers the main study area of the entire study program, which means that the student must prove his knowledge of the subject he has taken in two resp. three years of study. The exam also includes a thesis challenge before the academic board.
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Eng. The degree (Technical) is usually awarded for a master’s degree obtained in a natural scices or mathematics study program, while the Mgr. (Magister) is generally awarded for master’s studies in social sciences, humanities and MgA. (Magister of the Arts) in art.
In Germany, the Master of Arts degree is called the Latin Magister Artium. This degree, which used to require five years of study, existed in the Holy Roman Empire and its successors, including the German Empire and the Federal Republic of Germany, but did not exist in the former East Germany, where all degree courses led to a Diploma. . Traditional Master’s degrees are awarded in the social sciences and most of the humanities (international business, European studies and economics included), with the exception of the visual and performing arts such as music and theater.
Magister Artium earns a double or combined degree of major and two minors. In 2001, the German Master of Art and Master of Science degrees were introduced. Therefore, the new Master of Arts and the old Magister Artium diploma have existed together, since 2010; The Master of Arts degree is still awarded by some universities, as of 2020. The new Bachelor of Arts and Master of Arts degrees together also require five years of study, so the new Master of Arts degree and the old Master of Arts degree are considered the same. .
In the Netherlands, the Master of Arts and Master of Scice degrees were introduced in 2002. Until that time, only one program leading to the doctorandus degree (or engineer degree in a technical subject) was applied, which had the. the same course load as the combined bachelor’s and master’s programs. Those who have started the doctorandus program can, after completing it, choose the doctorandus title, which is given the title “Doctorandus” before their name, abbreviated ‘drs.’; in the case of ingieur, this must be ‘ir.’), or else choose the master’s degree as a postnominal after the name, in accordance with the new standard (‘MA’ or ‘MSc’). A master’s degree can take one or two years to complete.
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The Polish Master of Arts is equivalent to “magister” (abbreviated “mgr” placed in front of a person’s name, like the title Dr. In technical universities, students are awarded inżynier (engineer) after three years and “magister” after completing two years of study and graduating. People -this person uses the title “mgr inż”. In the 1990s, the five-year MA program was replaced by a three-year bachelor’s program and a two-year master’s program. Degrees are awarded in the arts (visual arts, literature, foreign languages, film, theater, and etc.), natural sciences, mathematics, computer science, and economics. Completion of a research thesis is required. All master’s degrees in Poland qualify for doctoral programs.
In Finland, Denmark and Norway, the master’s degree is a combined teaching/research degree, awarded after two years of study after completing a bachelor’s degree. Studt had to write a scientific thesis.
In Finland, this master’s degree is called filosofian maisteri (in Finnish) or filosofie magister (in Swedish), and is abbreviated as FM or “fil.mag.”.
In Sweden, there is still an intermediate degree between bachelor (candidate) and master called magister that only requires one year of study, including a scientific thesis after completing the bachelor’s degree. This fourth year is usually the first half of the master’s program. Otherwise, it can be supplemented with a fifth year and a master’s thesis to obtain a master’s degree in the field of study.
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Except at Oxford, Cambridge, and Trinity College Dublin (see below) the MA is usually a “taught” postgraduate degree, which includes lectures, examinations, and a thesis based on independent research. A taught master’s program consists of one or two years of full-time study. Many can be done part-time as well. Until now, bachelor’s and master’s students were awarded without grades or grades (such as honors degrees). Today, however, master’s degrees are usually classified as Fail, Pass, Pass with Merit, or Pass with Distinction. This model of education is followed in Great Britain India and many Commonwealth countries.
The Master of Laws (LLM) is the standard degree taught for law, but certain courses can lead to the MA, MLitt, Master of Studies (MSt), and Bachelor of Civil Law (BCL) at Oxford. All these degrees are considered as substitutes for each other and thus they are generally equivalent.
In former Scottish universities, the Master of Arts degree is awarded as a four-year undergraduate degree, see Master of Arts (Scotland).
The Master of Arts degree is the first degree awarded in the arts, humanities, theology, and social sciences. However, some universities in Scotland offer Master of Letters (MLitt) degrees to students in the arts, humanities, divinity, and social sciences.
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At Oxford, Cambridge and the University of Dublin, the degree of Master of Arts is conferred after a few years, without further examination, to those who have graduated as Bachelor of Arts and have the required years of membership. university or as a graduate. This is done, in the nodes, only in the universities of Oxford, four years after completing the bachelor’s degree, and Cambridge, six years after the first term of study. This is also the case at Dublin University. The abbreviated name of the university (Oxon, Cantab or Dubl) is therefore almost always added in brackets to the initials “MA” in the same way as in higher degrees, e.g. “John Smith, MA (Cantab), PhD (London)”, mainly to make it clear (to those familiar with the system) that this is a nominal degree and without examination.
The MLitt is a research degree at the University of Cambridge, where the Master of Philosophy (MPhil) is the name given to a standard one-year teaching degree with a unique research component, in contrast to the use of MPhil in other institutions for research degrees.
Research carried out in 2000 by the university watchdog, the Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education, showed that two-thirds of employers did not know that Oxford and Cambridge MAs did not represent any achievement after graduation.
In February 2011, Labor MP Chris Leslie sponsored a private member’s Bill in Parliament, the Master’s (Minimum Extension) Bill, to “prohibit universities from awarding a master’s degree unless certain learning and assessment standards are met”. Supporters of the bill described the practice as a “historical anachronism” and said that “unearned qualifications” must be stopped to preserve the academic integrity taught by MAs. Additionally, he warns that the degree gives Oxbridge graduates an unfair advantage in the job market. On
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