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Master Of Arts Degree
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A Master of Arts (Latin: Magister Artium or Artium Magister; abbreviated as MA, M.A., AM or AM) is a master’s degree awarded by universities in many countries. The degree is usually comparable to a Master of Science. Those enrolled in the degree have usually studied subjects within the humanities and social sciences, such as history, literature, languages, linguistics, public administration, political science, communication studies, law or diplomacy; However, different universities have different accreditations and may also offer degrees in fields commonly considered science and mathematics. Degrees may be awarded based on completed courses and passed exams, research, or a combination of the two.
The Master’s degree traces its origins to the teaching license or Lictia docdi at the University of Paris, designed to produce “masters” who were graduate teachers of their subject.
Like all EU member states, the Czech Republic and Slovakia follow the Bologna process. Both the Czech Republic and Slovakia offer two different types of master’s degrees; Both offer the title of Mgr. or Ing. Use before the name.
Before the reforms in line with the Bologna process, a master’s degree could only be obtained after five years of continuous study. According to the new system, it only takes two years, but it requires a previously completed three-year degree program (Bc. title). In order to obtain a diploma, it is necessary to write a thesis (for both master’s and bachelor’s programs) and pass final exams. It is often the case that the final exams cover the main study areas of the entire study program, i.e. the student needs to prove his knowledge of the subjects he attended during two or Three years of study. The exams also include the defense of the thesis before the academic board.
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Ing. (Jr.) degrees are usually awarded for master’s degrees earned in natural sciences or mathematics-intensive study programs, while Mgr. (Master’s) is generally awarded for Master’s studies in Social Sciences, Humanities and MgA. (Master of Arts) in Art.
In Germany, the Master of Arts degree is called Magister Artium in Latin. This degree, which usually required five years of study, existed in the Holy Roman Empire and its successors, including the German Empire and the Federal Republic of Germany, but not in the former East Germany, where all degree courses led to a diploma. Traditional master’s degrees are awarded in the social sciences and most of the humanities (including international business, European studies and economics), with the exception of the visual and performing arts such as music and theatre.
Magister Artium has either a double degree or a combination of a major and two minors. The German postgraduate Master of Arts and Master of Science were introduced in 2001. Thus, the new Master of Arts and the old Magister Artium degrees have existed side by side since 2010; Magister Artium degrees are still offered by some universities as of 2020. The new Bachelor and Master of Arts degrees require five years of joint study, which is why the new Master of Arts and the old Master of Artium degrees are considered equivalent. .
The Master of Arts and Master of Science degrees were introduced in the Netherlands in 2002. Until then, the single program leading to a doctoral degree (or an engineering degree in the case of technical subjects) consisted of Undergraduate and postgraduate programs held together have equal loads. Those who had already started the Doctorandus program could, after completing it, opt for a doctoral degree, which had the title “Doctorandus” in front of their name, abbreviated ‘drs.’; In the case of engineers, it is ‘ir’. will), or opt for a master’s degree as a postnominal after their name, according to the new standard (“MA” or “MSc”). A master’s degree may take one or two years to complete.
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The Polish equivalent of a Master of Arts is “magister” (its abbreviation “mgr” is placed before one’s name, like the title Dr. At technical universities, the degree is awarded with inzinier (engineer) after three years and “Master” after another two years of study and graduation. Such people use the titles “mgr inz”. In the 1990s, master’s programs, which usually lasted five years, were replaced by three-year bachelor’s and two-year master’s programs. Diplomas are awarded in the fields of arts (visual arts, literature, foreign languages, filmmaking, theater, etc.), natural sciences, mathematics, computer science and economics. A research thesis needs to be done. All master’s degrees in Poland qualify for the doctoral program.
In Finland, Denmark and Norway, the Master’s degree is a joint teaching/research degree, awarded after two years of post-graduate study. Stud should write a scientific thesis.
In Finland, this master’s degree is called philosophien maisteri (in Finnish) or philosophie magister (in Swedish), and is abbreviated as FM or “fil.mag”.
In Sweden, there is still an intermediate degree called a Master between Bachelor (candidate) and Master that requires only one year of study including a thesis after completing the degree. This fourth year is usually the first part of the master’s program. If not, it can be supplemented with a fifth year and a master’s thesis to obtain a master’s degree in the field of study.
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Except at Oxford, Cambridge and Trinity College Dublin (see below), an MA is usually a ‘taught’ postgraduate degree, consisting of lectures, examinations and a dissertation based on detailed research. Taught Master’s programs include one or two years of full-time study. A lot can be done on a part-time basis. Until established, both undergraduate and postgraduate master’s degrees were awarded without grade or class (such as the class of an honors degree). Today, however, master’s degrees are usually classified as fail, pass, pass with merit, or pass with distinction. This pattern of UK education is followed in India and many Commonwealth countries.
The Master of Laws (LLM) is the standard degree taught in law, but some courses lead to the MA, MLitt, Master of Studies (MSt) and Bachelor of Civil Law (BCL) at Oxford. All these degrees are considered interchangeable and are therefore generally equivalent.
In the ancient universities of Scotland, the Master of Arts degree is awarded as a four-year undergraduate course in universities, see Master of Arts (Scotland).
The Master’s degree is the first degree awarded in the fields of arts, humanities, theology and social sciences. However, some universities in Scotland offer Master of Letters (MLitt) degrees in Arts, Humanities, Divinity and Social Sciences.
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At Oxford, Cambridge, and the University of Dublin, the degree of Master of Arts is conferred, without examination, after a certain number of years, on those who have graduated as Bachelors of Arts and served the required years as Fellows. As a university or graduate. It is, in fact, only in the universities of Oxford, four years after graduation, and Cambridge, six years after the first period of study. This is also the case at the University of Dublin. The university abbreviation (Ocon, Cantab or Double) is therefore almost always added to the initials “MA” in participles such as in higher degrees, e.g. “John Smith, MA (Cantab), PhD (Lond)”, mainly to make it clear (to those aware of the system) that these are nominal and imprecise degrees.
The MLitt is a research degree at the University of Cambridge, where the Master of Philosophy (MPhil) is the name of a standard one-year teaching degree with a unique research element, in contrast to the use of the MPhil at other institutions. Research degree.
A 2000 survey by the Universities Agency for Quality Assurance in Higher Education found that two-thirds of employers were unaware that Masters degrees at Oxford and Cambridge did not constitute any form of postgraduate attainment.
In February 2011, Labor MP Chris Leslie sponsored a private member’s bill in parliament, the Masters Degrees (Minimum Standards) Bill, “to prohibit universities from awarding postgraduate degrees unless certain standards of study and assessment are met”. Proponents of the law described the practice as a “historical anachronism” and argued that “unrecognized qualifications” should be stopped in order to preserve the academic integrity of master’s degrees. Furthermore, they warned that the title gives Oxbridge graduates an unfair advantage in the job market. on the
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