Master Degree Certificate – (from Latin magister) is a post-graduate academic degree awarded by universities or colleges after completion of a course of higher education or demonstrating a higher level overview of a particular field of study or professional field of study.
A master’s degree usually requires prior study at master’s level, either as a separate degree or as part of an integrated course. Graduates of the master’s degree within the field of study are expected to have advanced knowledge of a specialized unit of theoretical and applied disciplines; High-level skills in analysis, critical evaluation or professional application; and the ability to solve complex problems and think critically and critically.
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The Master’s degree originates in European universities, with the Papal Bull of 1233 decreeing that anyone admitted to a Master’s degree at the University of Toulouse should be allowed to teach freely at any other university. A master’s degree originally meant that someone admitted to a master’s (i.e. teacher) degree (degree) at one university must be admitted to other universities with the same degree. This gradually became formalized as lichtia dokdi (teaching licks). At first there was no distinction between masters and doctors, but by the 15th century it became customary to address teachers in lower faculties (arts and grammar) as masters and teachers in higher faculties as doctors in brilliant universities.
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Originally, the Bachelor of Arts (BA) was awarded for the study of the Trivium and the Master of Arts (MA) for the study of the Quadrivium.
From the late Middle Ages to the 19th century, the degree model was therefore bachelor’s and master’s degrees in the lower faculties and bachelor’s and doctoral degrees in the higher faculties. The first master’s degree (magister artium or master of arts) in the United States was awarded at Harvard University shortly after its founding.
In Scotland, the pre-Reformation universities (St Andrews, Glasgow and Aberdeen) developed so that the Scots MA became their first degree, and at Oxford, Cambridge and Trinity College Dublin the MA became the BA. An additional examination since the late 17th century, its main purpose is to grant full university membership.
At Harvard, rule 1700 required candidates for a master’s degree to pass a public examination.
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The 19th Curie saw a major expansion in the variety of graduate degrees offered. At the beginning of education, the only master’s degree was the MA, which was usually awarded without further study or examination. In 1815, a master’s degree in surgery was introduced by the University of Glasgow.
By 1861 it was accepted throughout Scotland, as well as by Cambridge and Durham in England and Dublin University in Ireland.
When the Philadelphia College of Surgeons was founded in 1870, it also awarded a master of surgery “unique in Europe”.
However, there was considerable doubt about the quality of Scottish degrees of this period. Lord Brougham, Lord Chancellor and alumnus of the University of Edinburgh, told the House of Lords in 1832 that “Universities in England confer degrees after long residence, after much toil, and at least. The laws of the universities require it. Although very strict, Oxford and It cannot be said that the Masters of Arts at Cambridge were established in Scotland, without any residence or examination. All laws imposing compulsory conditions for the awarding of degrees by universities in Scotland were a dead letter.
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By 1837, the newly founded University of Durham had a master’s degree in philosophy. Separate examinations were re-introduced (although, as in the ancient Glish universities, these were to confer full membership), the same procedure was introduced in the 1840s. The University of London, empowered by its charter to grant degrees by examination only.
However, by mid-century the MA was again under threat as the second degree was examined, Durham, like the Oxbridge MA and Edinburgh in 1857, moving towards awarding the BA automatically with honours. Other Scottish universities awarded the MA as the first degree, replacing the BA from 1858.
At the same time, new universities along the lines of London were being established around the British Empire, including the Masters Examinations: the University of Sydney in Australia and, in the 1850s, the University of Quiz in Ireland and the University of Bombay (now the University). Mumbai, India in 1857), Madras and Calcutta.
The revival of the master’s degree in the United States began in 1856 at the University of North Carolina, followed by the University of Michigan in 1859.
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However, by the 1870s, the idea of accepting the master’s degree as a terminal degree alongside the doctorate was well established.
Sometimes it was possible to get an MA by exam or securitization at the same institution; In Michigan, for example, the “by-course” MA was introduced in 1848 and finally awarded in 1882, while the “by-examination” MA was introduced in 1859.
Probably the most important graduate degree introduced in the 19th century is the Master of Science (MS in the US, MSc in the UK). At the University of Michigan it was introduced in 1858 in two forms: a “course” first given in 1859 and an “examination” first given in 1862. “Curriculum” MS was awarded for the last time in 1876.
In England, however, the degrees took some time to arrive. When London introduced the Faculty of Science in 1858, the university was granted a new charter “authorizing the conferment of the several degrees of Bachelor, Master, and Doctor of Arts, Law, Science, Medicine, Music.”
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Although the MA is the standard Bachelor of Arts degree in Scotland, the same two degrees, again except for the MA, are awarded in Edinburgh.
In 1862, a royal commission proposed that Durham offer master’s degrees in theology and science (with the proposed abbreviations MT and MS, in contrast to the later British practice of using MT or MTheol and MSc for these degrees),
However, his recommendations were not implemented. In 1877, Oxford introduced the Master of Natural Sciences to complement the Bachelor of Natural Sciences with the MA and BA degrees and to be available to students who obtained their degrees in the Honors School of Natural Sciences.
But in 1880 a proposal to rename the degree Master of Science was rejected, with a proposal to confer the Master of Arts degree on the Master of Natural Science to make the Master of Natural Science a full member of the University.
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This scheme may have been quietly abolished when Oxford continued to award bachelor’s and master’s degrees in science.
At the University of Victoria, both the Master’s and Master’s degrees followed Durham’s Master’s degree and required more examinations for those with a regular bachelor’s degree, but not for those with an honors degree.
At the beginning of the 20th century, there were four different types of master’s degree in Great Britain: the Scottish MA, which was awarded as a first degree; Master of Arts (Oxbridge and Dublin), awarded to all undergraduates without further study after their first degree; a master’s degree, which can be obtained either by further study or by taking an honors degree (which in the UK involved further study beyond the usual degree, as was then the case in Scotland and some Commonwealth countries); and master’s degrees (including all London master’s degrees) which can only be obtained by further study. In 1903, the London Daily News criticized the Oxford and Cambridge practices, calling their master’s degree “the stupidest of academic frauds” and a “false degree”.
The Suing correspondence noted that “the Scottish M.A. is, at most, only equal to the glazed B.A.” and called for common standards for degrees, scorning from ancient universities that “the Cambridge M.A. does not pretend to be an academic award” and that “it is absurd to describe one of their degrees as spurious, since other modern universities award the same degree” for various reasons. . . .
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In 1900, Dartmouth College introduced the Master of Commercial Science (MCS), which was first awarded in 1902. It was the first master’s degree in business, the forerunner of the modern MBA.
In 1903, a Faculty of Commerce was established in Manchester, offering bachelor’s and master’s degrees in commerce, and the idea quickly crossed the Atlantic.
As the honors degree became the standard undergraduate qualification in the UK, the automatic master’s degrees for honors recipients in the first half of their studies disappeared. In the 1960s, the new Scottish universities (with the exception of Dundee, which inherited the BA from St Andrews) re-introduced the BA as a BA in Arts and returned the MA to the status of a postgraduate qualification. Although Oxford and Cambridge have retained their master’s degrees, they have squeezed out many postgraduates.
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