I Have A Master’s Degree – (from the Latin magister) is a postgraduate academic degree awarded by a university or college upon completion of a course of study that demonstrates mastery or a high-level overview of a specific field of study or professional field of study.
A master’s degree usually requires preliminary study at graduate level, either as a separate degree or as part of an integrated course. In the area studied, Master’s graduates are expected to have advanced knowledge of a specific body of theoretical and applied subjects; High-level skills in analysis, critical evaluation or professional application; and the ability to solve complex problems and think critically and critically.
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Master’s degrees originated in European universities, with the Papal Bull of 1233 stipulating that anyone admitted to a master’s degree at the University of Toulouse should be allowed to teach freely at any other university. A master’s degree originally meant that a person admitted to the rank (degree) of a master (i.e. teacher) in one university should be accepted to the same rank in another university. This gradually became official as lichtia dokdi (licking teaching). Originally, there was no distinction between masters and doctors, but by the 15th century it had become customary in university glosses to refer to teachers in the lower faculties (arts and grammar) as masters and teachers in the higher faculties as doctors.
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Initially, Bachelor of Arts (BA) degrees were awarded for Trivium studies and Master of Arts (MA) degrees for Quadrivium studies.
From the late Middle Ages to the 19th century, the degree pattern was therefore bachelor’s and master’s degrees in the lower faculties and bachelor’s and doctorates in the higher faculties. In the United States, the first master’s degree (magister artium, or master of arts) was awarded at Harvard University shortly after its founding.
In Scotland, the pre-Reformation universities (St Andrews, Glasgow and Aberdeen) developed so that the Scottish MA became their first degree, while in Oxford, Cambridge and Trinity College Dublin, the MA became the BA. Further examination since the end of the 17th century, its main purpose was to grant full university membership.
At Harvard, 1700 regulations require candidates for a master’s degree to pass a public examination,
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The 19th Curie saw a major development in the variety of Master’s degrees on offer. At the beginning of education, the only master’s degree was the MA, and this was usually awarded without further study or examination. In 1815 the Master’s degree in surgery was introduced by the University of Glasgow.
By 1861 it had been adopted throughout Scotland as well as by Cambridge and Durham in England and Dublin University in Ireland.
When the Philadelphia College of Surgeons was founded in 1870, it also awarded a master of surgery “unique in Europe”.
However, there is considerable doubt about the quality of Scottish degrees during this period. In 1832, Lord Brougham, Lord Chancellor and alumnus of the University of Edinburgh, told the House of Lords that “Universities in England award degrees after a long stay, after hard work, and if they do not do it at all. The law of the university requires it. Many Although strict , it cannot be said that the Masters of Arts at Oxford and Cambridge were created in Scotland, without any residence or examination. In Scotland, all the laws applying mandatory conditions for the awarding of degrees by universities are dead letters. is.”
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It was not until 1837 that the newly founded University of Durham received the title of M.A. in the field of philosophy. A separate examination was reintroduced (though, as in the ancient Glish universities, this was to grant full membership), which was uniformly followed in the 1840s. The University of London, which is only authorized by its charter to grant degrees by examination.
However, by the middle of the century, the MA was again under threat when the second degree was examined, Durham, like the Oxbridge MA and Edinburgh in 1857 moved towards the automatic award of honors to the BA. Other Scottish universities awarded the MA as its first degree, replacing the BA, from 1858.
At the same time, new universities were established around the British Empire along the lines of London, including examinations for the MA: the University of Sydney in Australia and the University of Quiz in Ireland in the 1850s, and the university of Bombay (now the University of Mumbai in India in 1857 ), Madras and Calcutta.
In the US, the restoration of the master’s degree began in 1856 at the University of North Carolina, followed by the University of Michigan in 1859.
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However, it was not until the 1870s that the idea of a master’s degree as a terminal degree alongside a PhD became established.
It is sometimes possible to obtain an MA by examination or by securitization at the same institution; For example, in Michigan the MA “on course” was introduced in 1848 and finally awarded in 1882, while the MA “on examination” was introduced in 1859.
Perhaps the most important master’s degree introduced in the 19th century was the Master of Science (MS in the US, MSc in the UK). At the University of Michigan it was introduced in 1858 in two forms: “on course”, first awarded in 1859, and “on examination”, first awarded in 1862. MS “curriculum” last awarded in 1876.
In Britain, however, degrees take a while to arrive. When London introduced its Faculty of Science in 1858, a new charter was granted to the university “authorizing it to confer the several degrees of Bachelor, Master and Doctor in Arts, Law, Science, Medicine, Music”.
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Although the MA is the standard undergraduate degree for Arts in Scotland, two similar degrees, again excluding the Masters, are awarded in Edinburgh.
In 1862, a royal commission proposed that Durham offer master’s degrees in theology and science (with the proposed abbreviations MT and MS, in contrast to the later British practice of using MTh or MTheol and MSc for these degrees),
But his suggestion was not acted upon. In 1877, Oxford introduced a Master of Natural Science with a Bachelor of Natural Science to hold the MA and BA degrees and would be awarded to students who obtained their degrees in the Honors School of Natural Sciences.
But in 1880 a proposal to rename the degree Master of Science was rejected, with a proposal to award the degree of Master of Arts to Master of Natural Science to make Masters of Natural Science full members of the University.
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The scheme may have been quietly dropped when Oxford continued to award BAs and MAs in science.
Both the MA and MSc at Victoria University follow the lead of the Durham MA in requiring more examinations for those with ordinary undergraduate degrees but not for those with honours.
In the early 20th century, there were four types of master’s degree in the UK: the Scottish MA, awarded as a first degree; Masters of Arts (Oxbridge and Dublin), awarded to all BA graduates for a specified period without further study after their first degree; a master’s degree which can be obtained either through further study or by obtaining an honors degree (which at the time in the UK involved further study beyond the normal degree, as is still the case in Scotland and some Commonwealth countries); and Master’s degrees which can only be obtained through further study (including all London Master’s degrees). In 1903, the London Daily News criticized the practices of Oxford and Cambridge, calling their MAs “the stupidest academic frauds” and “false degrees”.
Suing’s correspondence asserts that “the Scotch M.A is, at most, only the equivalent of a glazed B.A.” and calls for a common standard for degrees, while honors from ancient universities say that “the Cambridge M.A. does not pretend to be an award of education” and “it is absurd to describe one of their degrees as false because other modern universities give the same degree. difference. .”
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In 1900, Dartmouth College introduced the Master of Commercial Science (MCS), first awarded in 1902. This was the first master’s degree in business, the forerunner of the modern MBA.
In 1903 Manchester established the Faculty of Commerce, offering Bachelor and Master of Commerce degrees, and the idea quickly crossed the Atlantic.
The Automatic Master’s Degree for honors graduates in the first half of study disappeared when an honors degree became the standard undergraduate qualification in the UK. In the 1960s, the new Scottish universities (except Dundee, which inherited the undergraduate MA from St Andrews) reintroduced the BA as their undergraduate degree in arts, returning the MA to its status as a postgraduate qualification. Oxford and Cambridge kept their MAs, but crashed many of their postgraduates.
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