How Much Is A Master’s Degree – (from Latin magister) is a postgraduate academic degree awarded by universities or colleges at the end of a course of study that demonstrates mastery or a high-order overview of a particular field of study school or area of professional practice.
A master’s degree usually requires previous study at the bachelor’s level, either as a separate degree or as part of an integrated course. In the area studied, Master’s graduates are expected to have advanced knowledge in a specialized body of theoretical and applied topics; High analytical skills, critical analysis or professional application; and the ability to solve complex problems and think critically and competently.
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The master’s degree has its origins in European universities, with a papal bull of 1233 ordering that anyone admitted to the mastership at the University of Toulouse should be allowed to study for free at any other university. The original meaning of master’s degree is that a person admitted to the rank (degree) of master (i.e. teacher) in one university must be admitted to the same rank in other universities. It gradually became formalized as lictia docdī (lits At first, masters and doctors were not distinguished, but in the 15th century it became a practice in universities to recognize teachers in the lower faculties (arts and grammar) as masters and those in the higher faculty as doctors.
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Initially, the Bachelor of Arts (BA) was awarded for trivium studies and the Master of Arts (MA) for quadrivium studies.
From the late Middle Ages to the 19th century, the pattern of degrees was therefore to have bachelor’s and master’s degrees in the lower faculties and to have bachelor’s and doctorates in the higher faculties. In the United States, the first master’s degrees (Magister Artium, or Master of Arts) were awarded at Harvard University shortly after its founding.
In Scotland, pre-Reformation universities (St Andrews, Glasgow and Aberdeen) developed so that the Scottish MA became their first degree, while in Oxford, Cambridge and Trinity College Dublin, the MA was awarded to BA graduates of a certain status without Next. Examination of the late 17th century, its main goal was to give full membership of the university.
At Harvard, the 1700 regulations require that candidates for the master’s degree must pass a public examination,
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In the 19th century there was a great expansion in the variety of master’s degrees offered. At the beginning of the century, the only master’s degree was the MA, and people used to award it without further study or examination. The Master of Surgery degree was introduced by the University of Glasgow in 1815.
In 1861 it was adopted throughout Scotland as well as by Cambridge and Durham in England and the University of Dublin in Ireland.
When the Philadelphia College of Surgeons was founded in 1870, it also gave the Master of Surgery, “as in Europe”.
Although there are considerable doubts about the quality of the Scottish degrees of this period. In 1832, Lord Brougham, the Lord Chancellor and an alumnus of the University of Edinburgh, told the House of Lords that “at Driz the University gave degrees after a long period of residence, after much work done, and if they were not in All respect as strictly as the laws of the universities require, but it cannot be said that Masters of Arts are created at Oxford and Cambridge as they are in Scotland, without any residence, or without any kind of examination. Laws of the Universities Any imposed conditions on the conferment of degrees are a dead letter.”
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It was not until 1837 that separate examinations for the MA in Driz were re-introduced at the newly founded University of Durham (although, as in the old universities, this was to grant full membership), to be followed in 1840 by a similar new University of London, empowered by its charter only to grant degrees by examination.
However, by mid-century, the MA as an examined second degree was again under threat, with Durham switching to automatic awarding of BA honors in 1857, along the lines of the Oxbridge MA, and Edinburgh following other Scottish universities in awarding the MA as His first degree, in place of the BA, from 1858.
At the same time, new universities were established around the British Empire along the lines of London, including examinations for the MA: the University of Sydney in Australia and the University of Kee in Ireland in 1850, and the University of Bombay (now the University of Mumbai), Madras and Calcutta in India in 1857.
In the US, the revival of master’s degrees as an exam qualification began in 1856 at the University of North Carolina, followed by the University of Michigan in 1859,
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Although the idea of a master’s degree as an earned second degree was not established until the 1870s, with the PhD as the terminal degree.
Sometimes it is possible to get an MA by examination or in siority at the same institution; For example, in Michigan they introduced the “in course” M.A. in 1848 and was finally awarded in 1882, while the “under examination” MA was introduced in 1859.
Perhaps the most important master’s degree introduced in the 19th century was the master of science (MS in the US, MSc in the UK). At the University of Michigan it was introduced in two forms in 1858: “in course”, first awarded in 1859, and “in examination”, first awarded in 1862. The “in course” M.S. was finally awarded in 1876.
In Britain, however, the degree took longer to arrive. When London introduced its faculty of science in 1858, the university was granted a new charter empowering it “to grant several degrees of bachelor, master, and doctor, in arts, laws, science, medicine, music”,
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Both degrees, again the Master’s, are awarded in Edinburgh, although the MA is the standard undergraduate degree for Arts in Scotland.
In 1862 a royal commission proposed that Durham should grant Masters degrees in theology and science (with the proposed abbreviations MT and MS, contrary to the later British practice of using MTh or MTheol and MSc for degrees this),
But her recommendations were not acted upon. In 1877, Oxford introduced the Master of Natural Sciences, along with the Bachelor of Natural Sciences, to stand alongside the MA and BA degrees and awarded to students who took their degrees in the Honors School of Natural Sciences.
But in 1880 a proposal to make the degree Master of Science together with a proposal to give the Master of Arts degree to Masters of Natural Sciences, to make them full members of the University, was rejected.
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The scheme seems to have fallen flat, with Oxford continuing to award BA and MA in science.
At Victoria University both MA and MSc have followed the lead of Durham’s MA in requiring further examination for ordinary bachelor’s degrees but not for honours.
At the beginning of the 20th century, there were four different types of master’s degree in the UK: the Scottish MA, which was awarded as a first degree; The Master of Arts (Oxbridge and Dublin), awarded to all BA graduates within a certain period after their first degree without further study; Master’s degrees which can be obtained by further study or by gaining an honors degree (which at the time in the UK involved further study beyond the usual degree, as it still does in Scotland and some Commonwealth countries); and Master’s degrees that can only be obtained through further study (including all Master’s degrees in London). In 1903, the London Daily News criticized the practice of Oxford and Cambridge, calling their MAs “the stupidest of academic frauds” and “false degrees”.
The correspondence indicated that “a Scotch M.A. is, in most respects, only equal to a brilliant B.A.” and called for common standards for degrees, while defenders of early universities said that “the Cambridge M.A. does not pretend to be a reward of learning” and that “it is quite absurd to describe one in their degrees as a sham because other modern universities give The same degree for different reasons.”
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In 1900, Dartmouth College introduced the Master of Commercial Science (MCS), first awarded in 1902. It was the first master’s degree in business, the predecessor of the modern MBA.
The idea quickly crossed the Atlantic, where Manchester established a Faculty of Commerce, which awarded Bachelor and Master of Commerce degrees, in 1903.
In the first half of the automatic master’s degrees for honors graduates disappeared as honors degrees became the standard undergraduate qualification in the UK. In the 1960s, the new Scottish universities (except Dundee, which inherited the undergraduate MA from St Andrews) reinforced the BA as their undergraduate arts degree, returning the MA to its position as a postgraduate qualification. Oxford and Cambridge kept their MA, but rammed many of their postgraduates
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