After Master Degree – (from Latin magister) a higher education degree awarded by universities or colleges upon completion of studies, attesting to mastery or advanced expertise in a particular field of study or field of professional work.
A master’s degree usually requires prior study at the bachelor’s level, either as a separate degree or as part of an integrated course. In the field of study, MA graduates are expected to have a high knowledge of a specialized body of theory and applied topics; superior analytical, critical evaluation or application skills; and the ability to solve complex problems and think critically and independently.
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The magistracy dates back to the origins of European universities, with the 1233 papal decree that anyone admitted to a master’s degree at the University of Toulouse should be allowed to teach freely at any other university. The original meaning of the master’s degree was therefore that a person who has been admitted to the title (degree) of teaching (i.e. teacher) at one university must be admitted at the same level at other universities. These were formally designated as lictia docdī (permits to teach). At first, masters and doctors were not separated, but in the 15th century it became common in the universities of Gli that the teachers in the lower institutions (arts and grammar) were called masters, and those in the higher institutions were called doctors.
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Initially, the Bachelor of Arts (BA) was awarded for trivia studies, and the Masters of Arts (MA) for quadrivium studies.
From the late Middle Ages to the 19th century, the degree pattern was bachelor’s and master’s degrees at lower institutions and bachelor’s and doctoral degrees at higher institutions. In the United States, the first master’s degree (Magister Artium or Master of Arts) was awarded at Harvard University shortly after its founding.
In Scotland the pre-Reformation universities (St Andrews, Glasgow and Aberdeen) developed so that the Scots MA became their first degree, while at Oxford, Cambridge and Trinity College Dublin the MA was awarded to students who had passed a BA of some standing without further examination. late 17th century. per century, and its primary purpose is to grant full membership to the university.
At Harvard, regulations from 1700 required that candidates for a master’s degree must pass a public examination,
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In the 19th century, there was a great increase in the granting of master’s degrees. At the beginning of this century, the only master’s degree was a bachelor’s degree, and it was usually awarded without further study or examination. The degree of Masters of Surgery was introduced by the University of Glasgow in 1815.
In 1861 it was accepted throughout Scotland, including Cambridge and Durham in England and the University of Dublin in Ireland.
When the Philadelphia College of Physicians was founded in 1870, it also offered a degree in surgery “similar to that of Europe.”
Although there were serious doubts about the quality of Scottish degrees at this time. In 1832 Lord Brougham, Lord Chancellor and a graduate of the University of Edinburgh, told the House of Lords that “In the world of universities they give degrees after a long stay, after much work done, and if they are not in any way. are strict as required by the laws of the universities, but Masters of Arts cannot be said to have been created at Oxford and Cambridge as they were in Scotland, without residence or examinations of any kind. which set the conditions for awarding degrees were dead letters.”
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It was not until 1837 that separate MA examinations in Gland were re-established, at the newly founded University of Durham (although, like the older universities, this had to be granted full membership), to be followed in 1840 by the newly founded University of Durham and the new University of London, authorized only by its charter to award diplomas by examination.
However, in the middle of the century the MA as a second degree was again under threat, with Durham automatically awarding it to BA honorees in 1857, following the example of the Oxbridge MA, and Edinburgh following other Scottish universities in awarding the MA. as a bachelor’s degree, instead of a BA, since 1858.
At the same time, new universities were established around the British Empire along the lines of London, including the MA exams: University of Sydney in Australia and University of Que in Ireland in 1850, and the universities of Bombay (now University of Mumbai) Madras and Calcutta in India in 1857
In the US, the revival of the master’s degree as an examination qualification began in 1856 at the University of North Carolina, followed by the University of Michigan in 1859.
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Although the idea of a master’s degree as a secondary degree was not well established until the 1870s, with a doctorate as a final degree.
Sometimes it was possible to get a master’s degree either by passing the exams or by putting important things in the first place in one institution; for example, in Michigan, the “by course” MA was started in 1848 and the last one was awarded in 1882, while the “by examination” MA was started in 1859.
Perhaps the most important master’s degree introduced in the 19th century was the Master of Science (MS in the US, MSc in the UK). At the University of Michigan this was introduced in two forms in 1858: “course”, first offered in 1859, and “examination”, first offered in 1862. The MS “on course” was finally awarded in 1876.
In Britain, however, the degree took a long time to arrive. When London introduced the Faculty of Science in 1858, the university received a new charter authorizing it to “grant the several degrees of Bachelor, Master, and Doctor of Arts, Law, Science, Medicine, Music,”
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These two degrees, again apart from the MA, are awarded in Edinburgh, although the MA is the junior technical degree in Scotland.
In 1862, a royal commission recommended that Durham award Masters of Theology and Science (with the proposed abbreviations MT and MS, as opposed to the later British practice of MTh or MTheol and MSc for these degrees),
But his advice was not followed. In 1877, Oxford introduced the Master of Science, and Bachelor of Science, which stood alongside the MA and BA degrees and was awarded to students who obtained their degrees in the Honors School of Science.
But in 1880 the proposal to grant the degree of Masters of Science and the proposal to grant Masters of Science the degree of Master of Arts, in order to make full members of the university, were rejected.
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This plan seems to be slowly being phased out, and Oxford will continue to award BAs and MAs.
At the University of Victoria, both the MA and MSc have followed the guidelines of the Durham MSc in requiring additional examinations for those with a bachelor’s degree, but not for those with honours.
At the beginning of the 20th century, there were four different types of MA in the United Kingdom: the Scottish MA, which was awarded as a first degree; the Master of Arts (Oxbridge and Dublin), awarded to all graduates at some point after the first degree without further study; master’s degrees which can be obtained by further study or by obtaining an honors degree (which at the time in the UK involved further study beyond the standard degree, as it still does in Scotland and some of the United States); and master’s degrees that can only be obtained through continuing education (including all London master’s degrees). In 1903 the Daily News of London criticized the practice of Oxford and Cambridge, calling their master’s degrees “the most stupid corruption in education” and “false degrees”.
He explained in a lawsuit that “the Scotch M.A. is, for the most part, the equivalent of a light B.A.” and called for the common standards of the degrees, while the defenders of the old universities said that “the Cambridge MA does not act as a scholarship” and “it does not make sense to describe one of their degrees as false because other modern degrees the University offers the same degree for different reasons”.
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In 1900, Dartmouth College introduced the Master of Commercial Science (MCS), which was first awarded in 1902. It was the first master’s degree in business, the forerunner of today’s MBA.
The idea quickly crossed the Atlantic, and Manchester founded the Faculty of Commerce in 1903, offering Bachelor and Master of Commerce degrees.
During the first half of the century automatic MAs graduates with honors disappeared as honors degrees became the standard degree in the UK. In the 1960s, the new Scottish universities (except Dundee, which inherited the BA from St Andrews) re-introduced the BA as their professional degree, restoring the MA to its place as an undergraduate qualification. Oxford and Cambridge kept their MAs but lost most of their graduates
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